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SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY TEST 3

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ENDOCRINOLOGY

PITUITARY GLAND

ANATOMY / EMBRYOLOGY:

LACTATION: Four hormones participate in lactation.

PORTAL SYSTEM: Portal Vein of Hypothalamus is unique in that it carries venous blood to an organ (the adenohypophysis), hence the name "portal."

HYPOPITUITARISM:

PITUITARY ADENOMAS:

CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA: Benign tumor of squamous epithelial cells of Rathke's Pouch, the embryologic anlage of the pituitary.

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THYROID and PARATHYROID GLANDS

THYROID ANATOMY and PHYSIOLOGY:

NONTOXIC (COLLOID) GOITER: Euthyroid goiter, either diffuse or multinodular.

HYPOTHYROIDISM:

HYPERTHYROIDISM (THYROTOXICOSIS):

THYROIDITIS:

FOLLICULAR ADENOMA of the THYROID: Solitary cold nodules (don't take up iodide).

THYROID CARCINOMA:

PARATHYROID ANATOMY and PHYSIOLOGY:

HYPOPARATHYROIDISM:

HYPERPARATHYROIDISM:

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ADRENAL GLANDS

NORMAL STRUCTURE and FUNCTION:

CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA (CAH): Any deficiency in Cortisol synthesis results in increased ACTH ------> continual stimulation of and diffuse hyperplasia of adrenal glands.

ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY:

CUSHING SYNDROME: Hypersecretion of Cortisol from any cause.

CONN SYNDROME: Primary hypersecretion of Aldosterone from any cause.

MISCELLANEOUS ADRENAL TUMORS:

MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA (MEN):

PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA: Primary, benign, functional tumor of chromaffin cells in adrenal medulla.

PARAGANGLIONIC TUMORS: Tumors arising in or around the sympathetic ganglia, outside the adrenal medulla.

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THYMUS and PINEAL GLAND

ANATOMY and PHYSIOLOGY:

THYMIC HYPERPLASIA: Thymic Hyperplasia is associated with Myasthenia Gravis. Two third of MG patients show thymic hyperplasia.

THYMIC TUMORS:

PINEAL GLAND: Epithalamus, which secretes melatonin, which helps us sleep.


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THE SKIN

NORMAL STRUCTURE and FUNCTION:

DERMATOLOGY VOCABULARY: Definitions adapted from Steadman's Dictionary

SELECTED INFECTIONS with CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS:

EPIDERMAL DISEASES of EXCESSIVE CORNIFICATION:

PSORIASIS: Persistent, abnormal epidermal squamous-cell hyperplasia.

DYSHESIVE DISORDERS and RELATED DISEASES:

DISEASES of BASAL KERATINOCYTIC INJURY:

INFLAMMATORY DISEASES of VASCULAR BEDS: The most common diseases of the skin occur by allergic reactions.

DERMAL CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES:

INFLAMMATORY DISORDERS of PANNICULUS:

ACNE VULGARIS:

MELANOCYTIC NEOPLASIA:

BENIGN KERATOSES: Precursor lesions to basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas.

BASAL CELL CARCINOMA: Basal cell carcinoma is the single most common malignant neoplasm in human beings.

SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA:

SKIN-APPENDAGE TUMORS:

FIBROHISTIOCYTIC NEOPLASMS:

KAPOSI SARCOMA:

MYCOSIS FUNGOIDES (PRIMARY CUTANEOUS T-CELL LYMPHOMA):


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THE EYE

NORMAL STRUCTURE and FUNCTION:

EYELIDS and ORBIT:

EXOPHTHALMOS:

CONJUNCTIVA: Lined by stratified columnar epithelium.

CORNEA:

LENS:

UVEA: The choroid, ciliary body, and iris.

RETINA:

DIABETES:

OPTIC NERVE:

GLAUCOMA: Optic nerve atrophy, usually resulting from elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), secondary to obstruction of aqueous humor.

MYOPIA: Nearsightedness. The focal point of light occurs in front of the retina. Correct with diverging lens.

PHTHISIS BULBI: Non-specific, end-stage eye, characterized by atrophy of the eyeball.

NEOPLASMS:


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BONE

BONE STRUCTURE and FUNCTION:

BONE GROWTH:

GROWTH DISORDERS:

MODELING ABNORMALITIES:

FRACTURE:

AVASCULAR NECROSIS (ASEPTIC NECROSIS, OSTEONECROSIS): Death of bone or bone marrow in the absence of infection.

REACTIVE BONE FORMATION:

INFECTIONS:

LANGERHANS CELL HISTIOCYTOSIS (HISTIOCYTOSIS X): All three diseases show punched out, lytic bone lesions, with virtually no reactive bone formation.

OSTEOPOROSIS: Reduction in bone mass per unit volume.

OSTEOMALACIA and RICKETS: Primary failure of calcification of bone.

PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM:

PAGET DISEASE of BONE: Disordered bone-remodeling. Extensive resorption is followed by excessive bone formation.

GAUCHER DISEASE:

BENIGN NEOPLASMS:

MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS:

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JOINTS

NORMAL STRUCTURE and FUNCTION:

OSTEOARTHRITIS: Non-inflammatory degeneration of the articular cartilages of synovial joints.

RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS:

SPONDYLARTHROPATHIES: All of them are inflammations of the spine that have autoimmune etiologies, particularly associated with HLA-B27 haplotype.

SEPTIC ARTHRITIS: Arthritis caused by infection or as a direct sequel to infection.

LYME DISEASE: Infection of Borrelia Burgdorferi

JUVENILE ARTHRITIS (STILL DISEASE): Any chronic inflammatory arthritis in children. Rheumatoid Factor is often absent.

JOINT-DEPOSITION DISEASES:

OTHER CAUSES of ARTHRITIS:

TUMORS of JOINTS:

SOFT TISSUE TUMORS:


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THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

NORMAL STRUCTURE and FUNCTION:

CONGENITAL MALFORMATIONS:

TRAUMA:

CIRCULATORY DISORDERS:

CEREBRAL EDEMA: Swelling in the brain leads to hypoxia and can lead to herniation if not controlled.

CEREBRAL HERNIATION:

CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (CSF):

MENINGITIS:

NEUROSYPHILIS: T. Pallidum. Three manifestations:

MYCOTIC INFECTIONS:

PARASITIC INFECTIONS:

CEREBRAL ABSCESS: Can be caused by mastoiditis, chronic sinusitis, otitis media.

ENCEPHALITIS:

AIDS ENCEPHALOPATHY: Manifested clinically as a progressive dementia, accompanied by motor abnormalities.

SPONGIFORM (PRION) ENCEPHALOPATHIES:

DEMYELINATING DISEASES:

NEURONAL STORAGE DISEASES:

METABOLIC NEURONAL DISEASES:

VITAMIN DEFICIENCIES:

DEGENERATIVE DISEASES:

BRAIN CANCER GENERAL FEATURES:

NEUROECTODERMAL TUMORS:

MESENCHYMAL TUMORS:

ECTOPIC TUMORS:

HEREDITARY INTRACRANIAL NEOPLASMS:

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PERIPHERAL NERVES and MUSCLES

REACTIONS to INJURY:

PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHIES:

NERVE TRAUMA:

NERVE TUMORS:

MYOFIBRIL TYPES:

Type-I Muscle Fibers Type-II Muscle Fibers
Red, Slow-Twitch White Muscle, Fast-Twitch
Aerobic, mitochondrial metabolism. Contains lots of myoglobin. Embden-Meyerhof Pathway, Glycolysis.
Muscles don't change size much with exercise. Muscles can hypertrophy with androgenic steroids, or atrophy with disuse.
Postural muscles undergoing tonic contraction. Clonic, fast contractions.
Do not stain for ATPase Stains darkly for ATPase.

DUCHENNE/BECKER MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY: Severe muscle-wasting disease.

DERMATOMYOSITIS:

MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (MG):


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